Connexor Machinese Syntax for English

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Connexorin englannin jäsennin



The tool is available in Kielipankki - the Language Bank of Finland on the Taito server at CSC - Center for Scientific Computing (

en-fdg analyzes English text according to a functional depencency grammar. The output is either in text format or a proprietary XML format. The Connexor parsers are available on Taito-shell (user guide: and accessible to Language Bank users (members of the group kieli).


Connexor FDG 3.9


Machinese Syntax
Connexor FDG3 3.9 for English
(c) Connexor oy, 1997-2006


Note that fi-fdg expects latin1 as input encoding, so you need to convert from and to Taito-shell's utf8 encoding, if your text contains for example umlauts. See "fi-fdg" for an example.

[c305]> echo "This is a test." | en-fdg


<?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-1"?>
<!DOCTYPE analysis SYSTEM "">
<analysis><sentence id="w1">
<token id="w2"> <text>This</text> <lemma>this</lemma> <depend head="w3">subj:</depend> <tags><syntax>@SUBJ %NH</syntax> <morpho>PRON DEM SG</morpho></tags></token>
<token id="w3"> <text>is</text> <lemma>be</lemma> <depend head="w1">main:</depend> <tags><syntax>@+FMAINV %VA</syntax> <morpho>V PRES SG3</morpho></tags></token>
<token id="w4"> <text>a</text> <lemma>a</lemma> <depend head="w5">det:</depend> <tags><syntax>@DN&gt; %&gt;N</syntax> <morpho>DET SG</morpho></tags></token>
<token id="w5"> <text>test</text> <lemma>test</lemma> <depend head="w3">comp:</depend> <tags><syntax>@PCOMPL-S %NH</syntax> <morpho>N NOM SG</morpho></tags></token>
<token id="w6"> <text>.</text> <lemma>.</lemma></token>

Help, Manuals and Documentation

en-fdg is included in the module kieli which is loaded as a default for all language research users. The module can be loaded manually with the command

module load kieli

help commands:

fi-fdg --help

further information:

usage: fi-fdg [-flags] files
-h -- print this page
-v -- print version
-k --keep-sgml -- let markup codes and comments pass through the parser
--xml -- print output as XML (only in FDG; default)
--text -- print output as text
--dtd -- print XML output with the DTD (only in FDG)
--tagset -- output starts with the tag descriptions (in XML; only in FDG)
--tagset-dtd -- with the DTD for the tag descriptions (only in FDG)
--custom=file -- apply a custom lexicon
--port=number -- start the server mode and listen to the given port
--message -- each message is analysed separately

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Työkalu on saatavilla Kielipankin sovelluspalvelimella (

en-fdg ohjelma on englanninkielisen tekstin (morfologinen ja) syntaktinen jäsennysohjelma, joka jäsentää tekstiä virkkeittäin Lucien Tesnierin klassillisen dependenssisyntaksin periaatteiden tapaan. Työkalu on käytettävissä Kielipankin sovelluspalvelimella ( Ohjeet Taito-palvelimen käyttöön:

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